History of the Wabash Railroad
On November 8, 1838, the first railroad locomotive ever operated in the State of Illinois (or for that matter, in the entire area west of the Allegheny Mountains and north of the Ohio River) was placed on track at Meredosia and hauled a select party to the end of the eight miles of track which had been completed at that time, and back to Meredosia. That road which was know as the "Northern Cross" and that locomotive which was called the "Rogers" formed the nucleus of what was later to become the great Wabash Railroad System.
In the early 1830's, few of the westward-bound settlers ended their journeys east of the Mississippi. They were lured to the west bank of the river by the frontier civilization of the city of St. Louis, just below the junction of the Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers.
Geographical location and the lack of transportation facilities handicapped the growth of Illinois. Fewer and fewer traders moving westward by water were making the long, arduous trip via the Great Lakes and down the length of Lake Michigan to the tiny settlement that in 1833 was named "Chicago". In the 1830's, as pioneers settled in Illinois, they realized that here in their new homes was a need for better transportation facilities to move their furs, their crops and their goods to the markets along the river.
It was this problem of transportation that faced the Illinois legislature as it convened in the tiny capitol of Vandalia in the early 1830's. And the legislatures divided themselves into two partisan groups.
The men whose boyhood had been spent in the river towns along the Ohio and the Mississippi favored the construction of an extensive canal system. These proponents of a new canal shouted down the suggestions that even a small percentage of the funds of the new State of Illinois be spent for the construction of a railroad. The railroad contingent, headed by Joseph Duncan, a member of Congress, sought financing for the project in New York, but here, too, they were met with ridicule. Financiers could see no gain in investing money in a railroad that would span only an unpopulated forest.
By 1834, the fight for better transportation had reached its peak. Duncan was now governor of Illinois and one of his first official acts was to recommend a network of roads, railroads and canals for his State. He conceded that canals offered the cheapest, most practical means of transportation, yet he had sufficient vision to see that the railroad offered the only hope of good transportation to those communities springing up at points away from the navigable rivers of the state. Duncan's flowery oratory finally won the passage of the Illinois Internal Improvement Act, a bill which contained authorization for the study of the State's transportation systems. Duncan, in 1834, succeeded in forcing approval of a steam engine railroad to be built between Quincy, on the Mississippi, via Clayton, Mt. Sterling, Meredosia, Jacksonville, Springfield and Decatur to Danville and the Illinois-Indiana state line. And the new railroad was to be built with state funds.
There was a shortage of materials, for the iron of the rails had to be brought up river by boat from New Orleans to St. Louis and re-shipped again by boat from St, Louis up the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers to the tiny settlement of Meredosia, the city that was later designated as the starting point for the new road.
Nearly three years after authorization for the construction of the new line, actual work was finally begun. Starting date was set for November, 1837, and when the first shovel full of earth was turned for the construction of the railroad, at Meredosia on the east bank of the Illinois River, the few supporters of the railroad on hand were outnumbered by the "canalers" who came from up and down the river to jeer.
Despite the inauspicious start, the work of grading the right-of-way from Meredosia east and south to Morgan City went all through the winter. By spring, construction crews were ready for the actual track laying and in April, 1838, the new road began to take form.
Shortage of materials handicapped the builders all summer, and it was not until the fall of the year that the first strip of the line was ready. Now the builders waited for delivery of their first locomotive.
Because of the long, arduous river trip and the lack of large shipping spaces, the locomotive, made in Newark, NJ, by the firm of Rogers, Grosvenor and Ketchum, was shipped to Meredosia in pieces. With this knocked-down locomotive came a man named Fields who was to be the first engineer on the new road.
This new railroad was known as the "Northern Cross", a name chosen according to some historians, because the line surveyed for the railroad closely paralleled a well-worn trail known as the "Northern Crossing" of Illinois and often called "Northern Cross" although it was actually located in the south central portion of the State.
The first operations of the new road were not an outstanding success. Fields operated the Northern Cross' single engine for about a month, then turned it over to a man named Higgins. Higgins' tenure of office ended in a discharge but only after he had succeeded in melting out some of the flues. Finally, two brothers by the name of Gregory took over operation and the original engine -- called "Rogers" -- began to serve the 12 mile strip in more dependable fashion. In 1842, a line between Jacksonville and Springfield was completed, and in May, 1842, service from Meredosia to Springfield was made available. In December. 1856, the line was completed between Springfield and the Illinois-Indiana state line, the railroad having reached Decatur, Illinois, in 1854.
The drama of building the Northern Cross Railroad is the first chapter in the romantic story that is the growth of the Wabash Railroad System, for the lineage of the Wabash can be traced, without a break, to the first 12-mile strip over which engineer Fields operated a clumsy little locomotive between Meredosia and Morgan City in the fall of 1838.
For nearly 10 years, the growing Northern Cross Railroad was operated by the State of Illinois. And more and more favorable acceptance by the public resulted from the success of railroads in the east.
The year 1847 saw the first change in the new system that was soon to become known as the Wabash. The legislature of the State of Illinois authorized the sale of the original track between Meredosia and Springfield. Nicholas H. Ridgely was the purchaser. He paid the sum of $21,000 for the road, changing its name to the Sangamon and Morgan Railroad.
Ridgely's purchase turned out well, for at the time the extension of the road from Springfield to the Illinois-Indian State Line had been temporarily abandoned by the State because of lack of funds, and a short time after his original buy, he was granted an extension of his charter to include the entire line of the Northern Cross.
Actually, Ridgely inherited only a partially-graded roadbed from the State and was forced to seek private capital to aid him in his efforts to complete the originally-planned route of his new road. As the Sangamon and Morgan Railroad, the company managed to acquire two additional locomotives from Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia, but because of the distance from the source to obtain replacement parts, the locomotives became dilapidated and were replaced by oxen and horse-power for almost a year.
During the period of "animal-power", the road operated but two trains daily. They consisted of two cars, either horse-drawn or mule-drawn, depending on the animals available. One left Springfield for Naples and the other left Naples for Springfield. Near the end of 1847, the Sangamon and Morgan Railroad purchased four new engines and the use of animals as motive power for the trains was discontinued.
At the same time, the ownership of the new Sangamon and Morgan Railroad was undergoing rapid changes. Nicholas Ridgely sold an interest in his railroad to Thomas Mather of Springfield and James Dunlap of Jacksonville.
Together with his new partners, Nicholas Ridgely pushed the rehabilitation of the line between Springfield and the Illinois-Indiana state line. Already railroad traffic was mounting in the East, and plans were under way for rapid extension of the Eastern routes to tap the rapidly developing states of Illinois and Missouri.
The Sangamon and Morgan Railroad was to connect at the Illinois-Indian state line with a line westward from Toledo across Indiana to the border. In 1853, the Sangamon and Morgan Railroad became the Great Western Railroad and the first real expansion of the line from Springfield eastward began.
While the lines were developing in the state of Illinois, an enterprising group of businessmen in Indiana and Ohio had visions of an unbroken line of railroad to connect Toledo, Ohio with the Mississippi River. This line was to run through the valleys of the Maumee and Wabash Rivers to the state line of Illinois at a point seven miles from Danville, a distance of 242 miles, and was projected to connect with the Great Western Railroad of Illinois to complete the line to the Mississippi River. Two companies were formed -- the Toledo and Illinois Railroad Company in 1853 and the Lake Erie, Wabash and St. Louis Railroad Company in 1852 (the first railroad use of the name Wabash). Both were under the same management. In the summer of 1856, the two lines were merged, in accord with the original intention of the associates who formed them, into a single company known as the Toledo, Wabash and Western Railroad. This new company acquired the Great Western Railroad, and in 1865, a new corporation was formed under the name Toledo, Wabash and Western Railway Company, operating a "direct, through line of railway starting at Toledo, OH, and terminating at Quincy, IL, and Keokuk, IA, a total of about 520 miles.
The new company began to consolidate its position at Toledo, the eastern terminal of the system. Toledo was ideally situated as a rail center. Located in an almost direct line west from New York, Albany and other large cities of the East formerly served by the Erie Canal, it stood at the extreme west end of Lake Erie, and steamers carrying cargo to the north-central west abandoned a direct westerly route at Toledo and were forced to make the wide "U" detour through Lake Huron and the Mackinac Straits into Lake Michigan -- a route that was open only nine months of each year. The transfer of cargos from lake steamer to rail at Toledo was inevitable.
The Toledo, Wabash and Western, with lines running west and southwest from Toledo, enjoyed a better situation in 1859 than any other railroad in the area. Its lines crossed Indian and Illinois and connected the lake port of Toledo with the Mississippi River ports just above St. Louis and St. Charles.
The operators of the road made the most of this position. In 1859, they acquired a portion of a tract known as the "Middle Grounds," a section fronting the Maumee River emptying into Maumee Bay, an arm of Lake Erie. The Maumee River was an excellent harbor.
During the period between 1860 and 1870, with rail-to-steamer traffic increasing at Toledo, the Toledo, Wabash and Western continued expansion of their lines in Illinois to tap even greater areas and connect more and more of central and southern Illinois to the eastern states via Toldeo. Much of this expansion was completed under difficult conditions during the Civil War -- a time during which the Toledo, Wabash and Western Railroad performed outstanding service to our country in providing a quick, efficient route for the transportation of much-needed food for the armies from the central West to the East.
When the Civil War began in 1861, many of the communities in the territory just west of that served by the Toledo, Wabash and Western depended largely on river traffic for their contact with the rest of the country. The bulk of their produce traveled down the Mississippi to new Orleans by river boat. A secondary source of supply was via the Illinois River to Chicago. Secession of the southern states cut off Mississippi River commerce, and the Illinois waterways system was inadequate.
The two most logical cities toward which the Toledo, Wabash and Western could build were the cities of Keokuk, IA and Hannibal, MO. Both of these had been important river ports. Both were destined to become important rail centers during theses early days.
By the 1870's, the basic route of the modern Wabash Railroad system east of the Mississippi River had been completed. In addition to the extension of tracks to Hannibal and Keokuk, the Toledo, Wabash and Western had built a new line from Decatur to East St. Louis and a smaller branch from Edwardsville, IL, to a point on the Mississippi south of Alton. The completed system connected four points on the Mississippi River with Toledo and its valuable "Middle Grounds" where rail-to-ship interchange of cargo was most practicable.
During the business depression of 1877, the Toledo, Wabash and Western, now a railroad company which included some 678 miles of operating track, was reorganized. This new name of the railroad was The Wabash Railway Company. From 1877 on, the name Wabash was always to be the principal title of the road which began its operations in the early 1830's as the Northern Cross Railroad.
Following its reorganization as The Wabash Railway Company, the road continues its expansion north toward Chicago, which was now rapidly becoming on of the country's great rail centers. Eastern railroads had thrown their feelers toward the city at the base of Lake Michigan and already it was the important connecting link between the East and the West in the newly built transcontinental system. Chicago was an important goal for the Wabash in the completion of the rail network that would one day blanket the entire "Heart of America."
The goal was reached in 1880 when the Wabash lines were built from Strawn, IL, northward to Chicago, and an arrangement with the Chicago and Western Indiana Railroad Company provided the Wabash with entrance trackage and terminal facilities in the city itself. This arrangement involved joint ownership of the C. & W.I. RR.
A year later another opportunity for the Wabash to enter an important city in the "Heart of America" presented itself. The Eel River Railroad, extending from Logansport, IN, to Butler, IN, was available for lease. This lease, plus the construction of new track, enabled the Wabash to enter Detroit in 1881.
During its entire expansion east of the Mississippi River, the Wabash system served as the principal artery tapping the great "Heart of America". Other railroads entered the Illinois-Indiana territory served by the Wabash and its predecessor lines, but these railroads moved only toward the most important cities of the area and the vast, undeveloped regions which today are the most productive sections of the great "Heart" were accessible only over tracks of the Wabash.
While railroads east of the Mississippi River were tying Toledo and the East to the river ports of Illinois and Iowa, west of the Mississippi the predecessors of the present Wabash Railroad System were writing one of the greatest chapters in American railroad history.
When the first rails were being laid on the Northern Cross Railroad from Meredosia to Jacksonville in the late 1830's, little or no interest was aroused in Missouri, less than 100 miles away, for Missourians were convinced that their progress and growth was closely allied with river transportation.
Kansas City was a tiny settlement on the edge of the plains, dwarfed by the neighboring city of Independence a few miles to the north and east. And in the eastern part of the state, St. Louis was competing for eminence with the thriving Missouri River town of St. Charles.
Into this picture, just ten years later, came a group of pioneer railroad men who in 1851 secured a charter form the State of Missouri for building the North Missouri Railroad from St. Louis to the Missouri-Iowa state line. This line was to comprise three divisions: The first from St. Louis to St. Charles - 19.2 miles; the second, 148 miles, from St. Charles to Hudson, MO, (now Macon, MO) at which point it would intersect the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad; and the third from Hudson, MO, to the Missouri-Iowa state line -- 61,4 miles. Actual construction commenced on the first division in May of 1854 and on the second in 1855. The first division between St. Louis and St. Charles was opened to traffic on February 6, 1859. Thus, for the first time, railroad communication was established between St. Louis and St. Joseph, MO, on the west and Hannibal, MO, on the east. Until 1864, however, it was necessary to unload all freight and passengers on the east bank of the river, ferry the people and the goods across, and reload on the opposite side. In 1864, a car ferry arrangement was effected which eliminated the necessity for unloading and reloading on the west bank.
During the Civil War period from 1861 to 1865, the North Railroad's property was a military objective for both the Union and Confederate armies operating in the vicinity. During the summer of 1861, the Confederacy succeeded in completely destroying every bridge and culvert over the 100 miles of road then operated by the North Missouri Railroad. In addition, extensive damage was done to stations, cars and engines, and wherever possible, the marauders tore up rails, destroyed ties and burned fuel supplies. In 1854, two trains of cars and seven stations were burned in a second destructive mission. More than 120 men who tried to stop the Confederate invaders were killed and many of them are buried along the historic Wabash right-of-way near Centralia, MO, in Boone County.
Following the war, the North Missouri Railroad began to rebuild the lines destroyed in the military maneuvers and also began the construction of what was then known as the "West Branch", a line running from Moberly, MO, to Birmingham, MO, a small town near Kansas City, MO. This line was completed in the winter of 1868 and entrance made into Kansas City over the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad (now the Burlington Northern Railroad) bridge over the Missouri River.
In 1871, a bridge across the Missouri was completed at St. Charles, MO, and the North Missouri Railroad and the predecessors of the Wabash joined to provide a continuous line from Toledo on the east to the western part of Missouri.
With the completion of the bridge at St. Charles, the North Missouri now had a through line from St. Louis through St. Charles and north to Iowa, west to Kansas City and St. Joseph, and a direct connection with the railroads on the east side to the Mississippi River at Hannibal.
Less that three months following the completion of the new bridge, the North Missouri Railroad was reorganized, and as a result of foreclosure action, the entire property became known as the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern Railroad Company.
In 1879, The Wabash Railway Company, operating east of the Mississippi and the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern operating west of the Mississippi, were merged into the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway Company.
Financial difficulty of the next two decades made that period one of great difficulty, but in 1889 came a turn for the better, so that in the succeeding decade, the Wabash found it possible to proceed with construction of new trackage and the expansion of facilities to serve the city of Chicago during its World's Columbian Exposition in 1893 and the City of St. Louis during its Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904.
In the fifteen years of its operation following the formation of the Company in 1889, the Wabash took its proper place as one of our county's leading enterprises, contributing greatly to the well-being of the public in the territories reached by its rails.
In 1915, after foreclosure and reorganization, the Wabash Railroad Company of 1889, was sold to a new Wabash Railway Company, incorporated under the laws of Indiana.
The world wide "depression" of the early 30's struck the Wabash and all other United States railroads severely. With industry paralyzed; the prices of farm products at a new low; incomes (both personal and corporate) slashed; with market prices for commodities and securities crowding the vanishing point, the Wabash was forced into receivership.
Due in large measure to the efficient handling of the receivership and the reorganization proceedings, the Wabash was one of the very first of our country's railroads to "come back" from the effects of the Depression.
In January, 1942, the name of the railroad was changed to the Wabash Railroad Company.
Through the period of World War II, the Wabash performed outstanding service to our country in transporting men, material and supplies at a tremendously accelerated pace, to serve the needs of the nations involved in a global war, constantly outdoing previous conceptions of possible performance.
During the war years it was not possible to secure either materials of labor for making outstanding additions or improvements to the property. Post-war, however, the Wabash had invested more than one hundred millions dollars in new facilities of all kinds in order to serve even more efficiently the shipping and traveling public. In addition to modernizing its freight yards, communications facilities, and signaling devices, the Wabash had also greatly improved its passenger train equipment. The first stride in this direction was the inauguration of a totally new streamlined service between St. Louis and the West Coast. On June 2, 1946, in conjunction with the Union Pacific and Southern Pacific Railroads, the new train, the "City of St. Louis", began operations. In addition to drastically reducing the over-all running time between St. Louis and the West Coast, the new train offered St. Louisans through service in both coaches and Pullman sleeping cars to Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, or Seattle.
On November 26, 1947, another new streamliner, operating between St. Louis and Kansas City, was placed in service. Called the "City of Kansas City," the train met with instantaneous success and was highly acclaimed by many new passengers attracted to Wabash rails.
Inauguration of the Wabash streamliner on February 26, 1950, was an epoch making event. It marked the first time in history that "dome" cars were operated between St. Louis and Chicago. The new Wabash "Blue Bird", containing four dome cars in its six car consist, was put into service and offered Wabash passengers a new view of Wabash territory.
Since 1953, the Wabash had been considered 100% dieselized. One steam engine was operated for a short run on the Keokuk branch because the bridge at Meredosia, IL, could not support the weight of diesel engines until extensive changes had been completed. The steam engine made its last trip on January 28, 1955, and thus by a strange turn of fate, the reign of steam power on the Wabash ended where it began 117 years ago. The engine, No. 573, a Mogul 2-6-0 Class F-4, built by the Rhode Island Locomotive Works in 1899, was donated to the national Museum of Transportation in St. Louis County in August 1955.
The Wabash in July, 1954, entered the trailer-on-flat-car field (TOFC). This new service called "piggyback" was first operated between Chicago and New York via the Niagara Frontier and was shortly thereafter expanded from Chicago to St. Louis, then from St. Louis to Detroit and from Chicago to Detroit. Expansion of "Piggy-Back" service on and beyond Wabash rails was so rapid that the Wabash participated in these movements from the east coast to the west coast and from the Canadian border to the Gulf of Mexico and the Rio Grande.